The Revenue and Distributional Impacts of the Senate Republican Tax Plan

A.  Introduction

To truly understand the Republican tax plans now winding their way through Congress, one must look at the specifics of what is being proposed.  And the more closely one looks, the more appalling these plans are seen to be.  The blatant greed is breathtaking.  Despite repeatedly asserting that the plans would provide tax cuts for the middle class, the specific proposals now before Congress would in fact do the opposite.  Figures will be provided below.  And while the Secretary of the Treasury has repeatedly stated that only millionaires will pay more in taxes, the specific proposals now before Congress would in fact give millionaires huge cuts in the taxes they owe.

While provisions in the plans are changing daily, with certain differences between the versions being considered in the House and in the Senate as well as between these and what the White House set out in late September, the overall framework has remained the same (as the proponents themselves are emphasizing).  And this really is a Republican plan.  The House version was passed on a largely party-line vote with no Democrats in favor and only a small number of Republicans opposed, and the Senate version will require (assuming all Democrats vote against as they have been shut out of the process) 50 of the 52 Republican Senators (96%) to vote in favor.  The Republican leadership could have chosen to work with Democrats to develop a proposal that could receive at least some Democratic support, but decided not to.  Indeed, while their plans have been developed by a small group since Trump assumed the presidency in January, the specifics were kept secret as long as possible.  This made it impossible (deliberately) for there to be any independent analysis.  They are now trying to rush this through the House and the Senate, with votes taken as quickly as possible before the public (and the legislators themselves) can assess what is being voted upon.  The committees responsible for the legislation have not even held any hearings with independent experts.  And the Congressional Budget Office has said it will be unable to produce the analysis of the impacts normally required for such legislation, due to the compression of the schedule.

Fortunately, the staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT, a joint committee of both the House and the Senate) have been able to provide limited assessments of the legislation, focused on the budgetary and distributional impacts, as they are minimally required to do.  This blog post will use their most recent analysis (as I write this) of the current version of the Senate bill to look at who would be gaining and who would be losing, if this plan is approved.

As a first step, however, it would be good to address the claim that these Republican tax plans will spur such a jump in economic growth that they will pay for themselves.  This will not happen.  First, as earlier posts on this blog have discussed, there is no evidence from the historical data to support this.  Taxes, both on individuals and at the corporate level, have been cut sharply in the US since Reagan was president, and they have not led to higher growth.   All they did was add to the deficit.  Nor does one see this in the long-term data.  The highest individual income tax rates were at 91 or 92% (at just the federal level) between 1951 and 1963, and at 70% or more up until 1980.  The highest corporate income tax rate was 52% between 1952 and 1963, and then 46% or more up until 1986.  Yet the economy performed better in these decades than it has since.  The White House is also claiming that the proposed cut in corporate income taxes will lead to a rise in real wages of $4,000 to $9,000.  But there is no evidence in the historical data to support such a claim, which many economists have rejected as just absurd.  Corporate income tax rates were cut sharply in 1986, under Reagan, but real wages did not then rise – they in fact fell.

Finally, the assertion that tax cuts will lead to a large jump in growth ignores that the economy is already at full employment.  Were there to be an incipient rise in growth, leading to employment gains, the Federal Reserve Board would have to raise interest rates to keep the economy from over-heating.  The higher interest rates would deter investment, and one would instead have a shift in shares of GDP away from investment and towards consumption and/or government spending.

Any impact on growth would thus be modest at best.  The Tax Policy Center, using generous assumptions, estimated the tax plan might increase GDP by a total of 0.3% in 2027 and by 0.2% in 2037 over what it would otherwise then be.  An increase of 0.2% over 20 years means an increase in the rate of growth of an average of just 0.01% a year.  GDP figures are not even measured to that precision.

There would, however, be large distributional effects, with some groups gaining and some losing simply from the tax changes alone (and ignoring, for the purposes here, the further effects from a higher government debt plus increased pressures to cut back on government programs).  This blog post will discuss these, from calculations that draw on the JCT estimates of the revenue and distributional impacts.

B.  Revenue Impacts by Separate Tax Programs

The distributional consequences of the proposed changes in tax law depend on which separate taxes are to be cut or increased, what changes are made to arrive at what is considered “taxable income” (deductions, exemptions, etc.), and how those various taxes impact different individuals differently.  Thus one should first look at the changes proposed for the various taxes, and what impacts they will have on revenues collected.

The JCT provides such estimates, at a rather detailed level as well as year by year to FY2027.  The JCT estimates for the tax plan being considered in the Senate as of November 16 is available here.  Estimates are provided of the impacts of over 144 individual changes, for both income taxes on individuals and on various types of business (corporate and other).  A verbal description from the JCT of the Senate chair’s initial proposal is available here, and a description of the most recent changes in the proposal (as of November 14) is available here.  I would encourage everyone to look at the JCT estimates to get a sense of what is being proposed.  It is far more than what one commonly sees in the press, with many changes (individually often small in terms of revenue impact) that can only be viewed as catering to various special interests.

I then aggregated the JCT individual line estimates of the revenue impacts over FY18-27 to a limited set of broad categories to arrive at the figures shown in the chart at the top of this post, and (in a bit more detail) in the following table,:

Revenue Impact of Tax Plan ($billions)


A)  Individual excl. Estate, AMT, & Pass-Through:

  1)  Cuts


  2)  Increases 


     Net, excl. Estate, AMT, & Pass-Through  


B)  Primarily Applicable to the Rich:

  1)  Increase Estate Tax Exemption


  2)  End Alternative Minimum Tax


  3)  Tax Pass-Through Income at Lower Rates


     Total for Provisions Primarily for Rich


C)  Business – Domestic Income:

  1)  Cut Tax Rate 35% to 20%, and End AMT 


  2)  Other Tax Cuts


  3)  Tax Increases


     Net for Domestic Business


D)  Business – Overseas Income:

  1)  End Taxation of Overseas Profit


  2)  Other Tax Cuts


  3)  Tax Increases (except below)


     Net for Overseas, excl. amnesty & anti-abuse 


  4)  Partial Amnesty on Overseas Profit


  5)  Anti-abuse, incl. in Tax Havens


     Overall Totals


Source:  Calculated from estimated tax revenue effects made by the staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation, publication JCX-59-17, November 17, 2017, of the November 16 version of the Republican Chairman’s proposed tax legislation.

a)  Individual Income Taxes

As the chart and table show, while overall tax revenues would fall by an estimated $1.4 trillion over FY18-27 (excluding interest on the resulting higher public debt), not everyone would be getting a cut.  Proposed changes that would primarily benefit rich individuals (doubling the Estate Tax exemption amount to $22 million for a married couple, repealing the Alternative Minimum Tax in full, and taxing pass-through business income at lower rates than other income) would reduce the taxes the rich owe under these provisions by close to $1.1 trillion.  But individual income taxes excluding these three categories would in fact increase, by an estimated $191 billion over the ten years.

This increase of $191 billion in income taxes that most affect the middle and lower income classes, is not a consequence of an explicit proposal to raise their taxes.  That would be too embarrassing.  Rather, it is the net result of numerous individual measures, some of which would reduce tax liability (and which the politicians then emphasize) while others would increase tax liabilities (and are less discussed).  Cuts totaling $2.5 trillion would come primarily from reducing tax rates, from what they refer to as a “doubling” of the standard deduction (in fact it would be an increase of 89% over the 2017 level), and from increased child credits.  But there would also be increases totaling close to $2.7 trillion, primarily from eliminating the personal exemption, from the repeal of or limitation on a number of deductions one can itemize, and from changes that would effectively reduce enrollment in the health insurance market.

Part of the reason for this net tax increase over the full ten years is the decision to try to hide the full cost of the tax plan by making most of the individual income tax provisions (although not the key changes proposed for corporate taxes) formally temporary.  Most would expire at the end of 2025.  The Republican leadership advocating this say that they expect Congress later to make these permanent.  But if so, then the true cost of the plan would be well more than the $1.5 trillion ceiling they have set under the long-term budget plan they pushed through Congress in September.  Furthermore, it makes only a small difference if one calculates the impact over the first five years of the plan (FY18-22).  There would then be a small net reduction in these individual income taxes (excluding Estate Tax, AMT, and Pass-Through) of just $57 billion.  This is not large over a five year period – just 0.6% of individual income taxes expected to be generated over that period.  Over this same period, the cuts in the Estate Tax, the AMT, and for Pass-Through income would total $535 billion, or well over nine times as much.

One should also keep in mind that these figures are for overall amounts collected, and that the impact on individuals will vary widely.  This is especially so when the net effect (an increase of close to $200 billion in the individual income taxes generated) is equal to the relatively small difference between the tax increases ($2.7 trillion in total) and tax cuts ($2.5 trillion).  Depending on their individual circumstances, many individuals will be paying far more, and others far less.  For example, much stress has been put on the “doubling” of the standard deduction.  However, personal exemptions would also be eliminated, and in a household of just three, the loss of the personal exemptions ($4,050 per person in 2017) would more than offset the increase in the standard deduction (from $12,700 to a new level of $24,000).  The change in what is allowed for the separate child credits will also matter, but many households will not qualify for the special child credits.  And if one is in a household which itemizes their deductions, both before and after the changes and for whatever reason (such as for high medical expenses), the “doubling” of the standard deduction is not even relevant, while the elimination of the personal exemptions is.

Taxes relevant to the rich would be slashed, however.  Only estates valued at almost $22 million or more in 2017 (for a married couple after some standard legal measures have been taken, and half that for a single person) are currently subject to the Estate Tax, and these account for less than 0.2% of all estates.  The poorer 99.8% do not need to worry about this tax.  But the Senate Republican plan would narrow the estates subject to tax even further, by doubling the exemption amount.  The Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) is also a tax that only applies to relatively well-off households.  It would be eliminated altogether.

And pass-through income going to individuals is currently taxed at the same rates as ordinary income (such as on wages), at a rate of up to 39.6%.  The current proposal (as of November 16) is to provide a special deduction for such income equal to 17.4%.  This would in effect reduce the tax rate applicable to such income from, for example, 35% if it were regular income such as wages (the bracket when earnings are between $400,000 and $1.0 million in the current version of the plan) to just 28.9%.  Pass-through income is income distributed from sole proprietorships, partnerships, and certain corporations (known as sub-chapter S corporations, by the section in the tax code).  Entities may choose to organize themselves in this way in order to avoid corporate income tax.  Those receiving such income are generally rich:  It is estimated that 70% of such pass-through income in the US goes to the top 1% of earners.  Such individuals may include, for example, the partners in many financial investment firms, lawyers and accountants, other professionals, as well as real estate entities. There are many revealing examples.  According to a letter from Trump’s own tax lawyers, Trump receives most of his income from more than 500 such entities.  And Jeff Bezos, now the richest person in the world, owns the Washington Post through such an entity (although here the question might be whether there is any income to be passed through).

The JCT estimates are that $83 billion in revenue would be lost if the Estate Tax exemption is doubled, $769 billion would be lost due to a repeal of the AMT, and $225 billion would be lost as a result of the special 17.4% deduction for pass-through income.  This sums to $1,077 billion over the ten years.

Rich individuals thus will benefit greatly from the proposed changes.  Taxes relevant just to them will be cut sharply.  These taxes are of no relevance to the vast majority of Americans.  With the proposal as it now stands, most Americans would instead end up paying more over the ten year period.  And even if all the provisions with expiration dates (mostly in 2025) were instead extended for the full period, the difference would be small, with at best a minor cut on average.  It would not come close to approaching the huge cuts the rich would enjoy.

b)  Taxes on Income of Corporations and Other Businesses

The proposed changes in taxes on business incomes are more numerous.  They would also in general be made permanent (with some exceptions), rather than expire early as would be the case for most of the individual income tax provisions.  There are also numerous special provisions, with no obvious explanation, which appear to be there purely to benefit certain special interests.

To start, the net impact on domestic business activities would be a cut of an estimated $682 billion over the ten year period.  The lower tax revenues result from cutting the tax rate on corporate profits from 35% to 20%, plus from the repeal of the corporate AMT.  The cuts would total $1,370 billion.  This would be partially offset by reducing or eliminating various deductions and other measures companies can take to reduce their taxable income (generating an estimated $826 billion over the period).

However, there would also be measures that would cut business taxes even further (by an estimated $139 billion) on top of the impact from the lower tax rates (and elimination of the AMT).  Most, although not all, of these would be a consequence of allowing full expensing, or accelerated depreciation in some cases, of investments being made (with such full expensing expiring, in most cases, in 2022).  The objective would be to promote investment further.  This is reasonable, but with full expensing of investments many question whether anything further is gained, in terms of investment expenses, from cutting the corporate rate to 20%.

Special provisions include measures for the craft beer industry, which would reduce tax revenues by $4.2 billion.  The rationale behind this is not fully clear, and it would expire in just two years, at the end of 2019.  The measures should be made permanent if they are in fact warranted, but their early expiration suggests that they are not.  Also odd is a provision to allow the film, TV, and theater industries to fully expense certain of their expenses.  But this provision would expire in 2022.  If warranted, it should be permanent.  If not, it should probably not be there at all.

There are a large number of such special provisions.  Individually, their tax impact is small.  Even together the impact is not large compared to the other measures being proposed.  They mostly look like gifts to well-connected interests.

Others lose out.  These include provisions that allow companies to include as a cost certain employee benefits, such as for transportation, for certain employee meals (probably those provided in remote locations), and for some retirement savings provisions.  Workers would likely lose from this.  The proposal would also introduce new taxes on universities and other non-profits, including taxes on certain endowment income and on salaries of certain senior university officials (beyond what they already pay individually).  The revenues raised would be tiny, and this looks more like a punitive measure aimed at universities than something justified as a “reform”.

There would also be major changes in the taxes due on corporate profits earned abroad.  Most importantly, US taxes would no longer be due on such activities.  While this would cost in taxes a not small $314 billion (or $303 billion after a number of more minor cuts and increases are accounted for) over the ten years, also significant is the incentive this would create to relocate plants and other corporate activities to some foreign location where local taxes are low.  There would be a strong incentive, for example, to relocate a plant to Mexico, say, if Mexico offered only a low tax on profits generated by that plant.  The same plant in the US would pay corporate income taxes at the (proposed) 20% rate.  How this incentive to relocate plant abroad could possibly be seen as a positive by politicians who say they favor domestic jobs is beyond me.  It appears to be purely a response to special interests.

The corporate tax cuts are then in part offset by a proposal to provide a partial amnesty on the accumulated profits now held overseas by US companies.  Certain assets held overseas as retained earnings would be taxed at 5% and certain others at 10%.  Under current US law, corporate profits earned overseas are only subject to US taxes (at the 35% rate currently, net of taxes already paid abroad in the countries where they operate) when those profits are repatriated to the US.  As long as they are held overseas, they are not taxed by the US.  An earlier partial amnesty on such profits, in 2004 during the Bush administration, led to the not unreasonable expectation that there would again be a partial amnesty on such taxes otherwise due when Republicans once again controlled congress and the presidency.  This created a strong incentive to hold accumulated retained earnings overseas for as long as possible, and that is exactly what happened.  Profits repatriated following the 2004 law were taxed at a rate of just 5.25%.

The result is that US companies now hold abroad at least $2.6 trillion in earnings.  And this $2.6 trillion estimate, commonly cited, is certainly an underestimate.  It was calculated based on a review of the corporate financial disclosures of 322 of the Fortune 500 companies, for the 322 such companies where disclosures permitted an estimate to be made.  Based also on the deductible foreign taxes that had been paid on such overseas retained earnings, the authors conservatively estimate that $767 billion in corporate income taxes would be due on the retained earnings held overseas by the 322 companies.  But clearly it would be far higher, as the 322 companies, while among the larger US companies, are only a sub-set of all US companies with earnings held abroad.

Thus to count the $185 billion (line D.4. in the table above) as a revenue-raising measure is a bit misleading.  It is true that compared to doing nothing, where one would leave in place current US tax law which allows taxes on overseas profits to be avoided until repatriated, revenues would be raised under the partial amnesty if those accumulated overseas earnings are now taxed at 5 or 10%.  But the partial amnesty also means that one will give up forever the taxes that would otherwise be due on the more than $2.6 trillion in earnings held overseas.  Relative to that scenario, the amnesty would lead to a $582 billion loss in revenues (equal to an estimated $767 billion loss minus a gain of $185 billion from the 5 and 10% special rates of the amnesty; in fact the losses would be far greater as the $767 billion figure is just for the 322 companies which publish data on what they are holding abroad).  This is, of course, a hypothetical, as it would require a change in law from what it is now.  But it does give a sense of what is being potentially lost in revenues by providing such a partial amnesty.

But even aside from this, one must also recognize that the estimated $185 billion gain in revenues over the next few years would be a one time gain.  Once the amnesty is given, one has agreed to forego the tax revenues that would otherwise be due.  It would help in reducing the cost of this tax plan over the next several years, but it would then lead to losses in taxes later.

Finally, as is common among such tax plans, there is a promise to crack down on abuses, including in this case the use of tax havens to avoid corporate taxes.  The estimate is that such actions and changes in law would raise $273 billion over the next ten years.  But based on past experience, one must look at such estimates skeptically.  The actual amounts raised have normally been far less.  And one should expect that in particular now, given the underfunding of the IRS enforcement budget of recent years.

C.  Distributional Impacts

The above examined what is being proposed for separate portions of the US tax system.  These then translate into impacts on individuals by income level depending on how important those separate portions of the tax system are to those in each income group.  While such estimates are based on highly detailed data drawn from millions of tax returns, there is still a good deal of modeling work that needs to be done, for example, to translate impacts on corporate taxes into what this means for individuals who receive income (dividends and capital gains) from their corporate ownership.

The Tax Policy Center, an independent non-profit, provides such estimates, and their estimate of the impacts of the Republican tax plans (in this case the November 3 House version) has been discussed previously on this blog.  The JCT also provides such estimates, using a fundamentally similar model in structure (but different in the particulars).

Based on the November 15 version of the Senate Republican plan, the JCT estimated that the impacts on households (taxpayer units) would be as follows:

Overall Change in Taxes Due per Taxpayer Unit

Income Category






Less than $10,000






$10 to $20,000






$20 to $30,000






$30 to $40,000






$40 to $50,000






$50 to $75,000






$75 to 100,000






$100 to $200,000






$200 to $500,000






$500 to $1,000,000






Over $1,000,000






Total – All Taxpayers






Source:  Calculated from estimates of tax revenue distribution effects made by the staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation, publication JCX-58-17, November 16, 2017, of the November 15 version of the Republican Chairman’s proposed tax legislation.

By these estimates, each income group would, on average, enjoy at least some cut in taxes in 2019.  A number of the proposed tax measures are front-loaded, and it is likely that this structure is seen as beneficial by those seeking re-election in 2020.  But the cuts in 2019 vary from tiny ($21 for those earning $10,000 or less, and $49 for those earning $10,000 to $20,000), to huge ($21,581 for those earning $500,000 to $1,000,000, and $58,864 for those earning over $1,000,000).  However, from 2021 onwards, taxes due would actually rise for most of those earning $40,000 or less (or be cut by minor amounts).  And this is already true well before the assumed termination of many of the individual income tax measures in 2025.  With the plan as it now stands, in 2027 all those earning less than $75,000 would end up paying more in taxes (on average) under this supposed “middle-class tax cut” than they would if the law were left unchanged.

The benefits to those earning over $500,000 would, however, remain large, although also declining over time.

D.  Conclusion

The tax plan now going through Congress would provide very large cuts for the rich.  One can see this in the specific tax measures being proposed (with huge cuts in the portions of the tax system of most importance to the rich) and also in the direct estimates of the impacts by income group.  There are in addition numerous measures in the tax plan of interest to narrow groups, that are difficult to rationalize other than that they reflect what politically influential groups want.

The program, if adopted, would lead to a significantly less progressive tax system, and to a more complex one.  There would be a new category of income (pass-through income) receiving a special low tax rate, and hence new incentives for those who are well off to re-organize their compensation system when they can so that the incomes they receive would count as pass-through incomes.  While the law might try to set limits on these, past experience suggests that clever lawyers will soon find ways around such limits.

There are also results one would think most politicians would not advocate, such as the incentive to relocate corporate factories and activities to overseas.  They clearly do not understand the implications of what they have been and will be voting on.  This is not surprising, given the decision to try to rush this through before a full analysis and debate will be possible.  There have even been no hearings with independent experts at any of the committees.  And there is the blatant misrepresentation, such as that this is a “middle-class tax cut”, and that “taxes on millionaires will not be cut”.

If this is passed by Congress, in this way, there will hopefully be political consequences for those who chose nonetheless to vote for it.

The Republican Tax Cut Plan Really is Biased Towards the Rich

The respected Tax Policy Center (TPC), a non-partisan think tank set up as a joint venture of Brookings and the Urban Institute, released on November 8 its first estimates of the distributional impact of the November 3 Republican tax proposal.  The TPC runs a sophisticated micro-simulation model of the US tax system, using a large but anonymous set of tax returns to determine the impact of proposed changes in tax law.  The model is similar in nature to models run by the US Treasury and in Congress, but with full disclosure of the results and how they arrived at the estimates that they obtained.

As was discussed in an earlier post on this blog (on the Trump plan released in late September), these Republican plans will provide huge cuts in taxes for the very rich, and far more modest cuts for others.  The November 3 plan released by the Republican Chair of the House Ways and Means Committee (the committee responsible for all tax issues) is the first fully detailed plan for which good quantitative estimates can now be made of the impact by income group.  While certain elements in the proposal are changing daily, with the Republican leadership in a rush to push their plan through quickly before there can be extensive analysis and a solid debate, there is enough now available to make reasonable estimates of the impact.  And so far, the changes adopted have been minor, with the basic structure of the original proposal maintained.  It remains a plan where the rich will benefit disproportionately.

The chart at the top of this post shows the estimated average cuts in taxes that would be provided under this plan, categorized by income group:  in quintiles plus for the top 1% and top 0.1%.  The quintile groups are defined by equal shares of the population (20%), with the bottom 20% in those households in the lowest income rank, and so on up to the richest 0.1%.  The breakpoints (in 2027, but in terms of prices of 2017) for household incomes for each group are:

a)  Bottom 20%:  $0 to $28,099 of annual income;

b)  Second 20%:  $28,100 to $54,699;

c)  Middle 20%:  $54,700 to $93,199;

d)  Fourth 20%:  $93,200 to $154,899;

e)  Top 20%:  $154,900 or more;

f)  Top 1%:  $912,100 or more;

g)  Top 0.1%:  $5,088,900 or more.

One would have to be earning over $900,000 a year (in 2017 prices) to be part of the top 1% in 2027, and over $5 million a year to be in the top 0.1%.  These groups are very well off.

As the chart shows, the cuts are overwhelmingly clustered at the top.  Indeed, the cuts are relatively so small for the first 80% of the population that they do not even register at all on the bar lines.  And even if one re-draws the chart to remove the tax cuts the top 0.1% would gain (which stretches the scale), there is not much of a difference:

One can still barely see the cuts that would go to the first 80% of the population.

However, supporters of the Republican plan respond by saying that the rich get most of the cuts because the rich pay most of the taxes.  It is true that the rich do pay more in the current system when expressed in absolute dollar terms.  (It is not always the case when the taxes are expressed as a share of their incomes, but that is a separate issue and one I will not go into here.)  But is it the case that the tax cuts that will go to the rich under the Republican plan are proportionate to their incomes and/or the taxes that they pay?  As we will see in the remainder of this post, they are not.

First, one can calculate from the TPC figures (available for 2027 for the groups analyzed here in spreadsheet form at this link) the share of the tax cuts (in total dollar terms) that will go to each of the income groups identified:

The rich will receive a much higher share, in dollar terms, of the tax cuts than would go to the others.  The richest 20% will receive 73% of the dollar value of the cuts, while the subset within this group that are the top 1% will receive 47% and the top 0.1% will receive 25%.

But how does this compare to their shares of overall income?  After all, if the top 20% receive 73% of the tax cuts, but also account for 73% of overall income, one could say the tax cuts are proportionate to their incomes.  But that is not the case:


The top 20% account “only” for 49% of the nation’s household incomes (as forecast for 2027), but will obtain 73% of the tax cuts (as also forecast for that year).  And one can look at the similar relative amounts for the other income groups.

Perhaps the argument would then be made that the tax cuts should not be compared to the income shares, but to the shares of taxes each group would be paying (before the tax cuts, as under current law).  There is still a degree of progressivity in the tax system, even though the progressivity was reduced sharply in the Reagan and Bush tax cuts.  For the shares of taxes that would be paid (under current law) in 2027, one can calculate:


But even here, the share of the top 20%, say, comes to 69%, which is still less than the share of the tax cuts (73%) they would receive under the Republican plan.  And the shares are far more disproportionate for the top 1% and especially the top 0.1%.

One can look at this systematically, for all groups, by calculating the ratio of the shares of the tax cuts which would go to each group, to the shares of what each group would be paying in taxes (under current law).  By definition, the average ratio will be 1.0 (weighted properly), but the individual ratios will be above or below this.  What we find by dividing the shares of the tax cuts (Chart 3 above) by the shares of taxes to be paid under current law (Chart 5) is:


The ratio of what the bottom 20% of the population will be receiving in the proposed tax cuts, to what they would be paying in taxes under current law, is only 0.4.  They would be receiving, under the Republican plan, a disproportionately low share of the cuts.  And the ratio is even worse for the second 20% (which one might consider as the lower middle class), at just 0.3.  At the other end of the scale, the ratio of what the top 1% will be receiving in the proposed tax cuts (47% of the cuts) to what they would be paying in taxes under current law (31% of the taxes) is very generous, at 1.5.  And the top 0.1% would enjoy a ratio of tax cuts to what would they pay in taxes under current law of an even higher 1.8.

Finally, what do the ratios look like if one compares the share of the tax cuts that would go to each group to the shares of the incomes of those groups?  For the purposes here, I have taken the incomes as they would be after taxes, but only after the taxes as they would be under current law.  This is the base one is starting from, and thus the basis for such a comparison.  One finds:


Here the ratios are even starker.  The ratio of the share of the tax cuts that would go to the bottom 20% (0.4% – see Chart 3), to the share of income of those in that group (5.3% – see Chart 4), is just 0.07.  Put another way, the share of the tax cuts that would go to the poorest 20% of the population is 93% below what it would be had the tax cuts been allocated equally according to income shares.  It is almost as low for the second 20%, at just 0.12 (or 88% below what it would be had the cuts been allocated equally according to income shares).  And the ratio remains below 1.0 for all but the top 20% of the population.

But the tax cuts are generous for those with high incomes.  For the top 1%, the share they would receive in the proposed tax cuts is over 3 times their share of income.  And it is 3.6 times as high for the top 0.1%.

It is nonsense to claim that this would be a “middle-class tax cut”, as the Trump administration and the Republican leadership in Congress have repeatedly asserted.  A dramatically disproportionate share of the cuts will go to the extremely rich, while those at the lower end of the distribution will receive only token amounts.

Social Security Could be Saved With the Revenues Lost Under the Trump Tax Plan

As is well known, the Social Security Trust Fund will run out in about 2034 (plus or minus a year) if nothing is done.  “Running out” means that the past accumulated stock of funds paid in through Social Security taxes on wages, plus what is paid in each year, will not suffice to cover what is due to be paid out that year to beneficiaries.  If nothing is done, Social Security payments would then be scaled back by 23% (in 2034, rising to 27% by 2091), to match the amount then being paid in each year.

This would be a disaster.  Social Security does not pay out all that much:  An average of just $15,637 annually per beneficiary for those in retirement and their survivors, and an average of just $12,452 per beneficiary for those on disability (all as of August 2017).  But despite such limited amounts, Social Security accounts for almost two-thirds (63%) of the incomes of beneficiaries age 65 or older, and 90% or more of the incomes of fully one-third of them.  Scaling back such already low payments, when so many Americans depend so much on the program, should be unthinkable.

Yet Congress has been unwilling to act, even though the upcoming crisis (if nothing is done) has been forecast for some time.  Furthermore, the longer we wait, the more severe the measures that will then be necessary to fix the problem.  It should be noted that the crisis is not on account of an aging population (one has pretty much known for 64 years how many Americans would be reaching age 65 now), nor because of a surprising jump in life expectancies (indeed, life expectancies have turned out to be lower than what had been forecast).  Rather, as discussed in an earlier post on this blog, the crisis has arisen primarily because wage income inequality has grown sharply (and unexpectedly) since around 1980, and this has pulled an increasing share of wages into the untaxed range above the ceiling for annual earnings subject to Social Security tax ($127,200 currently).

But Congress could act, and there are many different approaches that could be taken to ensure the Social Security Trust Fund remains adequately funded.  This post will discuss just one.  And that would be not to approve the Trump proposal for what he accurately calls would be a huge cut in taxes, and use the revenues that would be lost under his tax plan instead to shore up the Social Security Trust Fund.  As the chart at the top of this post shows (and as will be discussed below), this would more than suffice to ensure the Trust Fund would remain in surplus for the foreseeable future.  There would then be no need to consider slashing Social Security benefits in 2034.

The Trump tax plan was submitted to Congress on September 27.  It is actually inaccurate to call it simply the Trump tax plan as it was worked out over many months of discussions between Trump and his chief economic aides on one side, and the senior Republican leadership in both the Senate and the Congress on the other side, including the chairs of the tax-writing committees.  This was the so-called “Gang of Six”, who jointly released the plan on September 27, with the full endorsement of all.  But for simplicity, I will continue to call it the Trump tax plan.

The tax plan would sharply reduce government revenues.  The Tax Policy Center (TPC), a respected bipartisan nonprofit, has provided the most careful forecast of the revenue losses yet released.  They estimated that the plan would reduce government revenues by $2.4 trillion between 2018 and 2027, with this rising to a $3.2 trillion loss between 2028 and 2037.  The lost revenue would come to 0.9% of GDP for the 2018 to 2027 period, and 0.8% of GDP for the 2028 to 2037 period (some of the tax losses under the Trump plan are front-loaded), based on the GDP forecasts of the Social Security Trustees 2017 Annual Report (discussed below).  While less than 1% of GDP might not sound like much, such a revenue loss would be significant.  As we will see, it would suffice to ensure the Social Security Trust Fund would remain fully funded.

The chart at the top of this post shows what could be done.  The curve in green is the base case where nothing is done to shore up the Trust Fund.  It shows what the total stock of funds in the Social Security Trust Fund have been (since 1980) and would amount to, as a share of GDP, if full beneficiary payments would continue as per current law.  Note that I have included here the trust funds for both Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) and for Disability Insurance (DI).  While technically separate, they are often combined (and then referred to as OASDI).

The figures are calculated from the forecasts released in the most recent (July 2017) mandated regular annual report of the Board of Trustees of the Social Security system.  Their current forecast is that the Trust Fund would run out by around 2034, as seen in the chart.

But suppose that instead of enacting the Trump tax plan proposals, Congress decided to dedicate to the Social Security Trust Funds (OASDI) the revenues that would be lost as a consequence of those tax cuts?  The curve in the chart shown in red is a forecast of what those tax revenue losses would be each year, as a share of GDP.  These are the Tax Policy Center estimates, although extrapolated.  The TPC forecasts as published showed the estimated year-by-year losses over the first ten years (2018 to 2027), but then only for the sum of the losses over the next ten years (2028 to 2037).  I assumed a constant rate of growth from the estimate for 2027 sufficient to generate the TPC sum for 2028 to 2037, which worked out to a bit over 6.1%.  I then assumed the revenue losses would continue to grow at this rate for the remainder of the forecast period.

Note this 6.1% growth is a nominal rate of growth, reflecting both inflation and real growth.  The long-run forecasts in the Social Security Trustees report were for real GDP to grow at a rate of 2.1 or 2.2%, and inflation (in terms of the GDP price index) to grow at also 2.2%, leading to growth in nominal GDP of 4.3 or 4.4%.  Thus the forecast tax revenue losses under the Trump plan would slowly climb over time as a share of GDP, reaching 2% of GDP by about 2090.  This is as one would expect for this tax plan, as the proposals would reduce progressivity in the tax system.  As I noted before on this blog and will discuss further below, most of the benefits under the Trump tax plan would accrue to those with higher incomes.  However, one should also note that the very long-term forecasts for the outer years should not be taken too seriously.  While the trends are of interest, the specifics will almost certainly be different.

If the tax revenues that would be lost under the Trump tax plan were instead used to shore up the Social Security Trust Fund, one would get the curve shown in blue (which includes the interest earned on the balance in the Fund, at the interest rates forecast in the Trustees report).  The balance in the fund would remain positive, never dipping below 12% of GDP, and then start to rise as a share of GDP.  Even if the TPC forecasts of the revenues that would be lost under the Trump plan are somewhat off (or if Congress makes changes which will reduce somewhat the tax losses), there is some margin here.  The forecast is robust.

The alternative is to follow the Trump tax plan, and cut taxes sharply.  As I noted in my earlier post on this blog on the Trump tax plan, the proposals are heavily weighted to provisions which would especially benefit the rich.  The TPC analysis (which I did not yet have when preparing my earlier blog post) has specific estimates of this.  The chart below shows who would get the tax cuts for the forecast year of 2027:

The estimate is that 87% of the tax revenues lost under the Trump plan would go to the richest 20% of the population (those households with an income of $154,900 or more in 2027, in prices of 2017).  And indeed, almost all of this (80% of the overall total) would accrue just to the top 1%.  The top 1% are already pretty well off, and it is not clear why tax cuts focused on them would spur greater effort on their part or greater growth.  The top 1% are those households who would have an annual income of at least $912,100 in 2027, in prices of 2017.  Most of them would be making more than a million annually.

The Trump people, not surprisingly, do not accept this.  They assert that the tax cuts will spur such a rapid acceleration in growth that tax revenues will not in fact be lost.  Most economists do not agree.  As discussed in earlier posts on this blog, the historical evidence does not support the Trumpian view (the tax cuts under Reagan and Bush II did not lead to any such acceleration in growth; what they did do is reduce tax revenues); the argument that tax cuts will lead to more rapid growth is also conceptually confused and reveals a misunderstanding of basic economics; and with the economy having already reached full employment during the Obama years, there is little basis for the assertion that the economy will now be able to grow at even 3% a year on average (over a mulit-year period) much less something significantly faster.  Tax cuts have in the past led to cuts in tax revenues collected, not to increases, and there is no reason to believe this time will be different.

Thus Congress faces a choice.  It can approve the Trump tax plan (already endorsed by the Republican leadership in both chambers), with 80% of the cuts going to the richest 1%.  Or it could use those revenues to shore up the Social Security Trust Fund.  If the latter is done, the Trust Fund would not run out in 2034, and Social Security would be able to continue to pay amounts owed to retired senior citizens and their survivors, as well as to the disabled, in accordance with the commitments it has made.

I would favor the latter.  If you agree, please call or write your Senator and Member of Congress, and encourage others to do so as well.


Update, October 22, 2017

The US Senate passed on October 19 a budget framework for the FY2018-27 period which would allow for $1.5 trillion in lost tax revenues over this period, and a corresponding increase in the deficit, as a consequence of new tax legislation.  It was almost fully a party line vote (all Democrats voted against it, while all Republicans other than Senator Rand Paul voted in favor).  Importantly, this vote cleared the way (under Senate rules) for it to pass a new tax law with losses of up to $1.5 trillion over the decade, and pass this with only Republican votes.  Only 50 votes in favor will be required (with Vice President Pence providing a tie-breaking vote if needed).  Democrats can be ignored.

The loss in tax revenues in this budget framework is somewhat less than the $2.4 trillion that the Tax Policy Center estimates would follow in the first decade under the Trump tax plan.  But it is still sizeable, and it is of interest to see what this lesser amount would achieve if redirected to the Social Security Trust Fund instead of being used for tax cuts.

The chart above shows what would follow.  It still turns out that the Social Security Trust Fund would be saved from insolvency, although just barely this time.

One has to make an assumption as to what would happen to tax revenues after 2027, as well as for what the time pattern would be for the $1.5 trillion in losses over the ten years from FY2018 to 27.  With nothing else available, I assumed that the losses would grow over time at the same rate as what is implied in the Tax Policy Center estimates for the losses in the second decade of the Trump tax plan as compared to the losses in the final year of the first decade.  As discussed above, these estimates implied a nominal rate of growth of 6.1% a year.  I assumed the same rate of growth here, including for the year to year growth in the first decade (summing over that decade to $1.5 trillion).

The result again is that the Social Security Trust Fund would remain solvent for the foreseeable future, although now just marginally.  The Trust Fund (as a share of GDP) would just touch zero in the years around 2080, but would then start to rise.

We therefore have a choice.  The Republican-passed budget framework has that an increase in the fiscal deficit of $1.5 trillion over the next decade is acceptable.  It could be used for tax cuts that would accrue primarily to the rich.  Or it could be used to ensure the Social Security system will be able, for the foreseeable future, to keep to its commitments to senior citizens, to their survivors, and to the disabled.


Lower Corporate Taxes Have Not Led to Higher Real Wages

A recently released report from the president’s Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) claims that cutting the headline corporate income tax rate from the current 35% to 20% would lead to a jump in the real incomes of American households by a minimum of $4,000 a year and possibly by as much as $9,000.  Others have criticized those forecasts for a variety of reasons, and Larry Summers has called the estimates “absurd”.

Indeed, they are absurd.  One way to see this is by looking at the historical evidence.  This is not the first time the US would cut its corporate tax rates.  Did such cuts in the past then lead to a jump in real wages?  As the chart above suggests, the answer is no.  This blog post will discuss that evidence, as well as other issues with the CEA analysis prepared under (and it appears largely by) its new chair Kevin Hassett.  But first some background on the CEA and its new chair, and what this recent incident portends for the Council and its previous reputation for professionalism.

The Council of Economic Advisers has, until now, been a highly respected office in the White House, set up to provide the president with objective and professional economic advice on the key economic issues of the day.  The Council was established in 1946 during the Truman administration, and has had as its chair and its members many illustrious and well-respected economists.  A number later received the Nobel Prize in Economics and similar awards.  While the CEA can be and has been political at times (it is located in the Office of the President, after all), it has had an able staff who were expected to provide professional assessments of the issues as a service to the president.  Many came on leave from academic posts.  As an example of the type of staff they could draw, both Larry Summers and Paul Krugman, then young and rising economists, were on the Council staff in the early 1980s during the Reagan administration.

The current chair is Kevin Hassett.  Trump did not nominate someone to the position until April, and Hassett took up his post (following Senate approval) only on September 13.  Prior to this post, Hassett was perhaps best known for co-authoring (with James K. Glassman) the 1999 book titled “Dow 36,000”, in which he forecast the Dow Jones Industrial Average would reach 36,000 by 2002 and certainly no later than by 2004.  In the event, the Dow never exceeded 11,750 (in January 2000) and dropped to 7,200 in October 2002, as the Bush administration’s first recession took hold.

Hassett has now, as one of his first official acts, released a formal CEA study that claims that if the Trump Tax Plan were enacted, with the headline corporate income tax cut from 35% to 20%, household incomes in the US would rise by a minimum of $4,000 per year, and possibly by as much as $9,000.  Larry Summers has termed it “dishonest, incompetent, and absurd”, and other economists have been similarly scathing.

The study really is pretty bad, and must be an embarrassment to the CEA staff. The report starts (Figure 1) with a chart that shows average real wage growth over the last several years (2013 to 2016) among the 10 OECD member countries with the highest statutory corporate income tax rates, as compared to that for the 10 OECD members with the lowest rates.  Between 2013 and 2016 (but essentially just in 2015) the wage growth was higher by a few percentage points in the set of OECD countries with the lower tax rates.  But the 10 OECD member countries with the lowest corporate tax rates were mostly countries from Central and Eastern Europe (Estonia, Latvia, and so on to Slovenia).  They were starting from lower wage rates than in the richer countries, and benefited as they opened up to globalization and in particular to the EU markets.  It is difficult to see how this simplistic correlation tells us much about what would happen if the US cut its corporate income tax rate.

Hassett then quantifies his estimate of the dollar gains per household by citing a number of obscure articles (several of which were never published in a peer-reviewed journal) to come up with estimates of possible elasticities (explained below) that relate how much household incomes would rise if corporate taxes were cut.  He concludes this review by asserting that an elasticity in the range of -0.16 to -0.33 would be reasonable, in his view.  The -0.16 figure came from a study from 2009 published in the “Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Economic Review”.  That is not exactly a prestigious journal.  And the -0.33 figure came from a 2007 paper that was presented at a conference, and does not appear to have ever been published.

An elasticity of -0.16 means that if the corporate tax rate were cut by 1% (not 1 percentage point, but rather by actually 1%, e.g. from 35% to 34.65%), then real wages would rise by 0.16%.  A 10% cut in the corporate tax rates (e.g. 35% to 31.5%) would lead, according to this assumption, to real wages rising by 1.6%.  And a cut in the corporate income tax rate from 35% to 20% (a 43% fall), as proposed in the Trump tax plan, would raise real wages by 6.9% under this assumption.  Hassett then applies this to the wage portion of household incomes to arrive at his calculated gain of $4,000 per household.  And the $9,000 gain is based on assuming an elasticity of -0.33.

There are numerous problems with this analysis, starting with the assumption that correlations are the same as causation.  There is also a question of what correlations are relevant.  The study that came up with the -0.33 elasticity, for example, looked at correlations across a panel of 50 countries.  It is not clear that such correlations would be of much relevance to judging the impact on real wages of a change in the US on corporate tax rates, as real wages across such a range of countries are driven by many factors (including, not least, the level of development).  And the -0.16 elasticity came from a study that examined correlations between real wages and corporate tax rates across the different states of the US.  But labor is mobile across US states, as is capital, plus the range of variation (state to state) in corporate tax rates is relatively modest as state taxes are relatively modest in size.  And indeed, it is not even clear how many companies actually pay the headline corporate income tax rates on the books, as states routinely grant them special tax holidays and other favors in order to try to get them to move to their states.

One would have thought that the most interesting investigation as to whether changes in corporate income taxes would matter in the US to real wages, would have been to see what actually happened in the US when such rates were cut in the past.  The fact that Hassett ignored this obvious question in the new CEA report is telling.  And there have indeed been earlier changes in the corporate tax rate, most notably (in recent decades) in 1987/88, following from the Tax Reform Act of 1986 during the Reagan administration.

The impact (or rather the lack of it) can be seen in the chart at the top of this post.  As had been discussed in earlier posts on this blog, real wages have been stagnant in the US (for the median wage earner) since around 1980.  The chart at the top of this post is an update of one prepared for a post from February 2015 that looked at the proximate causes of stagnant wages over this period, despite growth of real GDP per capita of more than 80% over the period.  While real GDP per capita is now 82% above what it was at the start of 1979, real wages (as measured by real median weekly earnings of full-time workers) are just 5.7% above where they were at the start of 1979.  Furthermore, the current “peak” of 5.7% growth can all be attributed to growth in the period since mid-2014, as the economy finally approached full employment levels in the later years of the Obama administration (having been held back by government spending cuts from 2010), with this carrying over into 2017.

The top corporate tax rate on profits was cut from 46% in the years up through 1986, to 40% in 1987 and then to just 34% in 1988 and thereafter to 1993 (when it was raised to the current level of 35%).  Did the cuts in 1987/88 lead to a sharp jump in real wages?  There is no indication of that at all in the chart.  Indeed, real wages fell by close to 6% between late 1986 and 1990, and then stayed at close to that low level until they started to rise some in the mid to late 1990s.  And there is no indication that the small increase in the corporate tax rate in 1993 to 35% led to wages then declining – indeed, they started to rise a few years later.

Based on this, one might come to the conclusion that a cut in corporate tax rates will lead to a fall (not an increase) in real wages, as seen following the 1987/88 cuts.  And also that a modest rise in the tax rate (such as in 1993) would lead to a gain in real wages a few years later.  But I would not claim this.  Rather, I would say that real wages and corporate tax rates are simply not closely linked to one another.  But for Hassett and others to claim that cuts in corporate taxes will lead to a significant jump in real wages, the exact opposite outcome following the 1987/88 cuts needs to be explained.

The CEA report was badly done, and must be an embarrassment to the professional staff there who certainly know better.  And as Larry Summers remarked in his blog post:  “Considering all this, if a Ph.D student submitted the CEA analysis as a term paper in public finance, I would be hard pressed to give it a passing grade.”

An Analysis of the Trump Tax Plan: Not a Tax Reform, But Rather a Massive Tax Cut for the Rich

A.  Introduction

The Trump administration released on September 27 its proposed tax plan.  It was exceedingly skimpy (only nine pages long, including the title page, and with all the white space could have been presented on half that number of pages).  Importantly, it was explicitly vague on many of the measures, such as what tax loopholes would be closed to partially pay for the tax cuts (simply saying they would do this somehow).  One can, however, examine measures that were explicitly presented, and from these it is clear that this is primarily a plan for massive tax cuts for the rich.

It is also clear that this is not a tax reform.  A tax reform would be revenue neutral.  The measures proposed would not be.  And a reform would focus on changes in the structure of the tax system.  There is little of that here, but rather proposals to cut various tax rates (including in several cases to zero), primarily for the benefit of those who are well off.

One can see this in the way the tax plan was approached.  In a true tax reform, one would start by examining the system, and whether certain deductions and tax exemptions are not warranted by good policy (but rather serve only certain vested interests).  Closing such loopholes would lead to higher revenues being collected.  One would then determine what the new tax rates could be (i.e. by how much they could be cut) to leave the overall level of tax collection the same.

But that was not done here.  Rather, they start with specific proposals on what the new tax rates “should” be (12%, 25%, and 35% for individuals, and 20% for corporations), and then make only vague references to certain, unspecified, deductions and tax exemptions being eliminated or reduced, in order not to lose too much in revenues (they assert).  They have the process backward.

And it is clear that these tax cuts, should they be enacted by Congress, would massively increase the fiscal deficit.  While it is impossible to come up with a precise estimate of how much the tax plan would cost in lost revenues, due to the vagueness on the parameters and on a number of the proposals, Republicans have already factored into the long-term budget a reduction in tax revenues of $1.5 trillion over ten years.  And estimates of the net cost of the Trump plan range from a low of $2.2 trillion over ten years ($2.7 trillion when additional interest is counted, as it should be), to as high as $5 trillion over ten years.  No one can really say as yet, given the deliberate lack of detail.

But any of these figures on the cost are not small.  The total federal debt held by the public as of the end of September, 2017, was $14.7 trillion.  The cost in lost revenue could equal more than a third of this.  Yet Republicans in Congress blocked the fiscal expenditures we desperately needed in the years from 2010 onwards during the Obama years, when unemployment was still high, there was excess capacity in our underutilized factories, and the country needed to rebuild its infrastructure (as we still do).  The argument then was that we could not add to our national debt.  But now the same politicians see no problem with adding massively to that debt to cover tax cuts that will primarily benefit the rich.  The sheer hypocrisy is breath-taking.

Not surprisingly, Trump officials are saying that there will be no such cost due to a resulting spur to our economic growth.  Trump himself asserted that his tax plan would lead the economy to grow at a 6% pace.  No economist sees this as remotely plausible.  Even Trump’s economic aides, such as Gary Cohn who was principally responsible for the plan, are far more cautious and say only that the plan will lead to growth of “substantially over 3 percent”.  But even this has no basis in what has been observed historically after the Reagan and Bush tax cuts, nor what one would expect from elementary economic analysis.

The lack of specificity in many of the proposals in the tax plan issued on September 27 makes it impossible to assess it in full, as major elements are simply only alluded to.  For example, it says that a number of tax deductions (both personal and corporate) will be eliminated or reduced, but does not say which (other than that they propose to keep the deductions for home mortgage interest and for charity).  As another example, the plan says the number of personal income tax brackets would be reduced from seven currently to just three broad ones (at 12%, 25%, and 35%), but does not say at what income levels each would apply.  Specifics were simply left out.

For a tax plan where work has been intensively underway for already the eight months of this administration (and indeed from before, as campaign proposals were developed), such vagueness must be deliberate.  The possible reasons include:  1) That the specifics would be embarrassing, as they would make clear the political interests that would gain or lose under the plan; 2) That revealing the specifics would spark immediate opposition from those who would lose (or not gain as others would); 3) That revealing the specifics would make clear that they would not in fact suffice to achieve what the Trump administration is asserting (e.g. that ending certain tax deductions will make the plan progressive, or generate revenues sufficient to offset the tax rate cuts); and/or 4) That they really do not know what to do or what could be done to fix the issue.

One can, however, look at what is there, even if the overall plan is incomplete.  This blog post will do that.

B.  Personal Income Taxes

The proposals are (starting with those which are most clear):

a)  Elimination of the Estate Tax:  Only the rich pay this.  It only applies to estates given to heirs of $10.98 million or more (for a married couple).  This only affects the top 0.2%, most wealthy, households in the US.

b)  Elimination of the Alternative Minimum Tax:  This also only applies to those who are rich enough for it to apply and who benefit from a range of tax deductions and other benefits, who would otherwise pay little in tax.  It would be better to end such tax deductions and other special tax benefits that primarily help this group, thus making the Alternative Minimum Tax irrelevant, than to end it even though it had remained relevant.

c)  A reduction in the top income tax rate from 39.6% to 35%:  This is a clear gain to those whose income is so high that they would, under the current tax brackets, owe tax at a marginal rate of 39.6%.  But this bracket only kicks in for households with an adjusted gross income of $470,700 or more (in 2017).  This is very close to the minimum income of those in the top 1% of the income distribution ($465,626 in 2014), and the average household income of those in that very well-off group was $1,260,508 in 2014.  Thus this would be a benefit only to the top 1%, who on average earn over $1 million a year.

The Trump plan document does include a rather odd statement that the congressional tax-writing committees could consider adding an additional, higher, tax bracket, for the very rich, but it is not at all clear what this might be.  They do not say.  And since the tax legislation will be written by the congressional committees, who are free to include whatever they choose, this gratuitous comment is meaningless, and was presumably added purely for political reasons.

d)  A consolidation in the number of tax brackets from seven currently to just three, of 12%, 25%, and 35%:  Aside from the clear benefit to those now in the 39.6% bracket, noted above, one cannot say precisely what the impact the new tax brackets would have for the other groups since the income levels at which each would kick in was left unspecified.  It might have been embarrassing, or contentious, to do so.  But one can say that any such consolidation would lead to less progressivity in the tax system, as each of the new brackets would apply to a broader range of incomes.  Instead of the rates rising as incomes move up from one bracket to the next, there would now be a broader range at which they would be kept flat.  For example, suppose the Trump plan would be for the new 25% rate to span what is now taxed at 25% or 28%.  That range would then apply to household incomes (for married couples filing jointly, and in 2017) from $75,900 on the low end to $233,350 at the high end.  The low-end figure is just above the household income figure of $74,869 (in 2016) for those reaching the 60th percentile of the income distribution (see Table A-2 of this Census Bureau report), while the top-end is just above the $225,251 income figure for those reaching the 95th percentile.  A system is not terribly progressive when those in the middle class (at the 60th percentile) pay at the same rate as those who are quite well off (in the 95th percentile).

e)  A ceiling on the tax rate paid on personal income received through “pass-through” business entities of just 25%:  This would be one of the more regressive of the measures proposed in the Trump tax plan (as well as one especially beneficial to Trump himself).  Under current tax law, most US businesses (95% of them) are incorporated as business entities that do not pay taxes at the corporate level, but rather pass through their incomes to their owners or partners, who then pay tax on that income at their normal, personal, rates.  These so-called “pass-through” business entities include sole proprietorships, partnerships, Limited Liability Companies (LLCs), and sub-chapter S corporations (from the section in the tax code).  And they are important, not only in number but also in incomes generated:  In the aggregate, such pass-through business entities generate more in income than the traditional large corporations (formally C corporations) that most people refer to when saying corporation.  C corporations must pay a corporate income tax (to be discussed below), while pass-through entities avoid such taxes at the company level.

The Trump tax plan would cap the tax rate on such pass-through income at 25%.  This would not only create a new level of complexity (a new category of income on which a different tax is due), but would also only be of benefit to those who would otherwise owe taxes at a higher rate (the 35% bracket in the Trump plan).  If one were already in the 25% bracket, or a lower one, that ceiling would make no difference at all and would be of no benefit.  But for those rich enough to be in the higher bracket, the benefit would be huge.

Who would gain from this?  Anyone who could organize themselves as a pass-through entity (or could do so in agreement with their employer).  This would include independent consultants; other professionals such as lawyers, lobbyists, accountants, and financial advisors; financial entities and the partners investing in private-equity, venture-capital, and hedge funds; and real estate developers.  Trump would personally benefit as he owns or controls over 500 LLCs, according to Federal Election Commission filings.  And others could reorganize into such an entity when they have a tax incentive to do so.  For example, the basketball coach at the University of Kansas did this when Kansas created such a loophole for what would otherwise be due under its state income taxes.

f)  The tax cuts for middle-income groups would be small or non-existent:  While the Trump tax proposal, as published, repeatedly asserts that they would reduce taxes due by the middle class, there is little to suggest in the plan that that would be the case.  The primary benefit, they tout (and lead off with) is a proposal to almost double the standard deduction to $24,000 (for a married couple filing jointly).  That standard deduction is currently $12,700.  But the Trump plan would also eliminate the personal exemption, which is $4,050 per person in 2017.  Combining the standard deduction and personal exemptions, a family of four would have $28,900 of exempt income in 2017 under current law ($12,700 for the standard deduction, and personal exemptions of four times $4,050), but only $24,000 under the Trump plan.  They would not be better off, and indeed could be worse off.  The Trump plan is also proposing that the child tax credit (currently a maximum of $1,000 per child, and phased out at higher incomes) should be raised (both in amount, and at the incomes at which it is phased out), but no specifics are given so one cannot say whether this would be significant.

g)  Deduction for state and local taxes paid:  While not stated explicitly, the plan does imply that the deduction for state and local taxes paid would be eliminated.  It also has been much discussed publicly, so leaving out explicit mention was not an oversight.  What the Trump plan does say is the “most itemized deductions” would be eliminated, other than the deductions for home mortgage interest and for charity.

Eliminating the deduction for state and local taxes appears to be purely political.  It would adversely affect mostly those who live in states that vote for Democrats.  And it is odd to consider this tax deduction as a loophole.  One has to pay your taxes (including state and local taxes), or you go to jail.  It is not something you do voluntarily, in part to benefit from a tax deduction.  In contrast, a deduction such as for home mortgage interest is voluntary, one benefits directly from buying and owning a nice house, and such a deduction benefits more those who are able to buy a big and expensive home and who qualify for taking out a large mortgage.

h)  Importantly, there was much that was not mentioned:  One must also keep in mind what was not mentioned and hence would not be changed under the Trump proposals.  For example, no mention was made of the highly favorable tax rates on long-term capital gains (for assets held one year or more) of just 20%.  Those with a high level of wealth, i.e. the wealthy, gain greatly from this.  Nor was there any mention of such widely discussed loopholes as the “carried interest” exception (where certain investment fund managers are able to count their gains from the investment deals they work on as if it were capital gains, rather than a return on their work, as it would be for the lawyers and accountants on such deals), or the ability to be paid in stock options at the favorable capital gains rates.

C.  Corporate Income Taxes

More than the tax cuts enacted under Presidents Reagan and Bush, the Trump tax plan focuses on cuts to corporate income (profit) taxes.  Proposals include:

a)  A cut in the corporate income tax rate from the current 35% to just 20%:  This is a massive cut.  But it should also be recognized that the actual corporate income tax paid is far lower than the headline rate.  As noted in an earlier post on this blog, the actual average rate paid has been coming down for decades, and is now around 20%.  There are many, perfectly legal, ways to circumvent this tax.  But setting the rate now at 20% will not mean that taxes equal to 20% of corporate profits will be collected.  Rather, unless the mechanisms used to reduce corporate tax liability from the headline rate of 35% are addressed, those mechanisms will be used to reduce the new collections from the new 20% headline rate to something far less again.

b)  Allow 100% of investment expenses to be deducted from profits in the first year, while limiting “partially” interest expense on borrowing:  This provision, commonly referred to as full “expensing” of investment expenditures, would reduce taxable profits by whatever is spent on investment.  Investments are expected to last for a number of years, and under normal accounting the expense counted is not the full investment expenditure but rather only the estimated depreciation of that investment in the current year.  However, in recent decades an acceleration in what is allowed for depreciation has been allowed in the tax code in order to provide an additional incentive to invest.  The new proposal would bring that acceleration all the way to 100%, which as far as it can go.

This would provide an incentive to invest more, which is not a bad thing, although it still would also have the effect of reducing what would be collected in corporate income taxes.  It would have to be paid for somehow.  The Trump proposal would partially offset the cost of full expensing of investments by limiting “partially” the interest costs on borrowing that can be deducted as a cost when calculating taxable profits.  The interest cost of borrowing (on loans, or bonds, or whatever) is currently counted in full as an expense, just like any other expense of running the business.  How partial that limitation on interest expenses would be is not said.

But even if interest expenses were excluded in full from allowable business expenses, it is unlikely that this would come close to offsetting the reduction in tax revenues from allowing investment expenditures to be fully expensed.  As a simple example, suppose a firm would make an investment of $100, in an asset that would last 10 years (and with depreciation of 10% of the original cost each year).  For this investment, the firm would borrow $100, on which it pays interest at 5%.  Under the current tax system, the firm in the first year would deduct from its profits the depreciation expense of $10 (10% of $100) plus the interest cost of $5, for a total of $15.  Under the Trump plan, the firm would be able to count as an expense in the first year the full $100, but not the $5 of interest.  That is far better for the firm.  Of course, the situation would then be different in the second and subsequent years, as depreciation would no longer be counted (the investment was fully expensed in the first year), but it is always better to bring expenses forward.  And there likely will be further investments in subsequent years as well, keeping what counts as taxable profits low.

c)  Tax amnesty for profits held abroad:  US corporations hold an estimated $2.6 trillion in assets overseas, in part because overseas earnings are not subject to the corporate income tax until they are repatriated to the US.  Such a provision might have made sense decades ago, when information systems were more primitive, but does not anymore.  This provision in the US tax code creates the incentive to avoid current taxes by keeping such earnings overseas.  These earnings could come from regular operations such as to sell and service equipment for foreign customers, or from overseas production operations.  Or such earnings could be generated through aggressive tax schemes, such as from transferring patent and trademark rights to overseas jurisdictions in low-tax or no-tax jurisdictions such as the Cayman Islands.  But whichever way such profits are generated, the US tax system creates the incentive to hold them abroad by not taxing them until they are repatriated to the US.

This is an issue, and could be addressed directly by changing the law to make overseas earnings subject to tax in the year the earnings are generated.  The tax on what has been accumulated in the past could perhaps be spread out equally over some time period, to reduce the shock, such as say over five years.  The Trump plan would in fact start to do this, but only partially as the tax on such accumulated earnings would be set at some special (and unannounced) low rates.  All it says is that while both rates would be low, there would be a lower rate applied if the foreign earnings are held in “illiquid” assets than in liquid ones.  Precisely how this distinction would be defined and enforced is not stated.

This would in essence be a partial amnesty for capital earnings held abroad.  Companies that have held their profits abroad (to avoid US taxes) would be rewarded with a huge windfall from that special low tax rate (or rates), totalling in the hundreds of billions of dollars, with the precise gain on that $2.6 trillion held overseas dependant on how low the Trump plan would set the tax rates on those earnings.

It is not surprising that US corporations have acted this way.  There was an earlier partial amnesty, and it was reasonable for them to assume there would be future ones (as the Trump tax plan is indeed now proposing).  In one of the worst pieces of tax policy implemented in the George W. Bush administration, an amnesty approved in 2004 allowed US corporations with accumulated earnings abroad to repatriate that capital at a special, low, tax rate of just 5.25%.  It was not surprising that the corporations would assume this would happen again, and hence they had every incentive to keep earnings abroad whenever possible, leading directly to the $2.6 trillion now held abroad.

Furthermore, the argument was made that the 2004 amnesty would lead the firms to undertake additional investment in the US, with additional employment, using the repatriated funds.  But analyses undertaken later found no evidence that that happened.  Indeed, subsequent employment fell at the firms that repatriated accumulated overseas earnings.  Rather, the funds repatriated largely went to share repurchases and increased dividends.  This should not, however, have been surprising.  Firms will invest if they have what they see to be a profitable opportunity.  If they need funds, they can borrow, and such multinational corporations generally have no problem in doing so.  Indeed, they can use their accumulated overseas earnings as collateral on such loans (as Apple has done) to get especially low rates on such loans.  Yet the Trump administration asserts, with no evidence and indeed in contradiction to the earlier experience, that their proposed amnesty on earnings held abroad will this time lead to more investment and jobs by these firms in the US.

d)  Cut to zero corporate taxes on future overseas earnings:  The amnesty discussed above would apply to the current stock of accumulated earnings held by US corporations abroad.  Going forward, the Trump administration proposes that earnings of overseas subsidiaries (with ownership of as little as 10% in those firms) would be fully exempt from US taxes.  While it is true that there then would be no incentive to accumulate earnings abroad, the same would be the case if those earnings would simply be made subject to the same current year corporate income taxes as the US parent is liable for, and not taxable only when those earnings are repatriated.

It is also not at all clear to me how exempting these overseas earnings from any US taxes would lead to more investment and more jobs in the US.  Indeed, the incentive would appear to me to be the opposite.  If a plant is sited in the US and used to sell product in the US market or to export it to Europe or Asia, say, earnings from those operations would be subject to the regular US corporate income taxes (at a 20% rate in the Trump proposals).  However, if the plant is sited in Mexico, with the production then sold in the US market or exported from there to Europe or Asia, earnings from those operations would not be subject to any US tax.  Mexico might charge some tax, but if the firm can negotiate a good deal (much as firms from overseas have negotiated such deals with various states in the US to site their plants in those states), the Trump proposal would create an incentive to move investment and jobs to foreign locations.

D.  Conclusion

The Trump administration’s tax plan is extremely skimpy on the specifics.  As one commentator (Allan Sloan) noted, it looks like it was “written in a bar one evening over a batch of beers for a Tax 101 class rather than by serious people who spent weeks working with tax issues”.

It is, of course, still just a proposal.  The congressional committees will be the ones who will draft the specific law, and who will then of necessity fill in the details.  The final product could look quite different from what has been presented here.  But the Trump administration proposal has been worked out during many months of discussions with the key Republican leaders in the House and the Senate who will be involved.  Indeed, the plan has been presented in the media not always as the Trump administration plan, but rather the plan of the “Big Six”, where the Big Six is made up of House Speaker Paul Ryan, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Kevin Brady, Senate Finance Committee Chairman Orrin Hatch, plus National Economic Council Director Gary Cohn and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin of the Trump administration.  If this group is indeed fully behind it, then one can expect the final version to be voted on will be very similar to what was outlined here.

But skimpy as it is, one can say with some certainty that the tax plan:

a)  Will be expensive, with a ten-year cost in the trillions of dollars;

b)  Is not in fact a tax reform, but rather a set of very large tax cuts;

and c)  Overwhelmingly benefits the rich.